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The geology of Zimbabwean gold is relatively well understood. Gold deposits are found in greenstone belts – large, irregularly-shaped bodies of highly deformed volcanic and sedimentary rocks surrounded and intruded by granitic rocks formed deep in the crust during the Archean Eon - a very early stage in earth history, about 3.5 billion years ago. These granite-greenstone complexes were the primitive nuclei, or cratons, around which continental crust accreted as earth history progressed.
The greenstone gold of Zimbabwe has essentially the same geology as that found in the continental cratons which host the world’s other great gold mining districts of Canada, Western Australia, India and Brazil.